Articles & Books on Facilitating the Work of Others
Articles on Facilitating the Work of Others
Armentrout, B. W. (June 1995). "Make Coaching Your Management
Metaphor (119KB)." HR Focus, v72n6, p. 3.
General information about six aspects of coaching: challenge, expectations/accountability, caring, employee development, manager development, and work
Ball, A. (November 1993). "Coping with Dysfunctional Work
Teams (118KB)." HR
Magazine, v38n11, pp. 131-132.
Tips on improving or creating team effectiveness: establishing group rules,
monitoring group behavior, and rewarding positive behavior. Dysfunctional work groups need clear rules and an understanding of consequences because
they are populated with people who have no personal boundaries. They are more than willing
to step on others and be stepped on. Often there can be out-and-out attempts at sabotage if
there is a previously existing agenda or relationship that is threatened by the mission of the
team. It should be remembered that all groups go through a period of heightened
antagonism and friction before they move to a more productive stage. Leaders should constantly reward
positive behaviors. These good behaviors often tend to clear the path for incremental
process improvement gems. One should be sure to celebrate the team when they do the right things
as a group.
Grove, Andrew S. (January 23, 1984). "Why Training is the Boss's Job."
A manager's output is the same as the organization's, and a manager's productivity depends
upon getting more from subordinates' performances. Because of the manager's influence over
productivity, training should be the manager's responsibility. Training and motivation can
improve subordinates' performance, yet what is taught must be tied to actual work and must
be continuous. Managers should be responsible for training because they are the only suitable
role models available. At Intel Corp. (Santa Clara, California), 2%-4% of employees' time is
spent in the classroom. To begin training employees, managers should develop: 1. a list of
areas in which workers need training, and 2. a list of resources available to help in training.
Managers should start small, set schedules for courses, and write up course outlines.
Anonymous critiques after the first course, with ratings and open-ended questions, can help
supervisors determine areas that need improvement. Although training is hard work, it is
rewarding to both trainees and trainers.
Knippen, J. and Green, T. (May 1990). "Coaching
Accounting, v71n11, pp. 36-38.
The most important function of the manager's job is ensuring effective performance by
subordinates. Coaching is one of the most effective ways to accomplish this. In the
managerial sense, coaching is a form of on-the-job training in which the manager works
directly with an employee to teach or improve job-related skills. The need for coaching arises
when expected job performance is not consistent with the actual performance and when the
organization has a situation that clearly speaks to inefficiency of operation. The 6 steps of
coaching are: 1. creating a need to know in the employee, 2. stating the specific learning
goals, 3. telling the employee how to perform the skill, 4. showing the employee how to
perform the skill, 5. having the employee practice the skill, and 6. providing the employee with
feedback on the performance of the skill.
Morris, B. (Feb 21, 2000). "So you're a player. Do you need a
coach?" Fortune, pg. 144-154.
Corporate coaching is one of the stranger wrinkles management these days - one of the
hottest things in human resources, except that is does not usually come out of human
resources. It is a grassroots movement that is spreading in some of the unlikeliest corners of
Corporate America, including IBM, AT&T, and Kodak. Coaches are everywhere these days.
Companies hire them to shore up executives or, in some cases, to ship them out. Division
heads hire them as change agents. It is not that executive coaching is particularly new. Chief
executives and those approaching the top have long sought counsel from personal
consultants, wise board members, or industrial psychologists. But in the past 5 years
coaching has gone mass-market. In the age of Every man for Himself, every man can have a
coach - and, in an ever more commonly held view, needs one.
Russo, F. (September 25, 2000).
"Play of the Day: Fostering Employee Loyalty in a Tight Labor
Market, Companies Are Offering Workers Personal Coaches as a Tool to
Help Them Thrive." Time, pp. B27-B28.
Eastman Kodak is one of many
corporations using coaching management to offer personal guidance
to managers and to train managers to coach their own people in
turn. At a growing number of Fortune 500 companies, coaching
is being used to shape employee behavior, making employees more
valuable. The main reason given for the trend is the booming
economy, which makes good staff harder to get and harder to keep.
Founded in 1992, Coach U is a university that trains coaches by
teleconference to help people set priorities and solve problems.
Coach U is by far the largest coach-training institute, even with
the growing number of similar training programs. Although
coaches use a wide variety of coaching techniques, many of the
program participants reported positive results: practical
solutions to problems, increased job satisfaction, even
advancement. Corporations believe that coaching helps keep
employees and that the dollar investment in coaching is far less
than the cost of replacing an employee.
Schermerhorn, Jr., J. R.,
Gardner, W. L., & Martin, T. N. (Spring 1990). "Management
Dialogues: Turning on the Marginal Performer." Organizational
Dynamics, pp. 47-59.
Managers can turn around many
marginal performers by employing a management framework based on
the individual performance equation: Performance equals ability
times support times effort. Basic to this equation is the
principle that high levels of work performance result from a
combination of: 1. a person's job-related abilities, 2. various
forms of organizational support, and 3. individual work efforts.
The following managerial strategy is suggested for turning around
a marginal performer: 1. bringing the performance gap to the
marginal performer's attention, 2. asking in a non-threatening way
for an explanation, 3. describing the implications of the marginal
performer's substandard work, 4. restating the original and
still-desirable performance goals, 5. offering the external
support needed for improvement, 6. agreeing on a suitable time
frame for jointly assessing future performance, and 7. continuing
the process until it succeeds or results in a job change.
J. & Butler, T. (2000). "Managing Away Bad
Habits." Harvard Business Review, Sept.-Oct., pp. 89-97.
In this article, the root causes of
psychological flaws are examined, and concrete tactics are
suggested which have been used to help people recognize and
correct 6 specific behavior patterns. The behaviors
addressed are: 1. The hero 2. The meritocrat 3. The bulldozer 4.
The pessimist 5. The rebel and 6. The home run hitter.
J. & Butler, T. (1996). "The
Executive as Coach." Harvard Business
Review, Nov.-Dec., pp. 111-117.
It has been found that coaching -
helping change the behaviors that threaten to derail valued
managers - is often the best way to help that manager succeed.
Good coaching is simply good management. It requires many of
the same skills, such as keen powers of observation, sensible
judgment, and an ability to take appropriate actions.
Similarly, the goal of coaching is the goal of good management: to
make the most of an organization's valuable resources. The
key to coaching is to be imaginative and to look for a variety of
solutions. Behavioral change requires understanding one's
effect on other people - a process that can be painful.
Effective coaches know the questions to ask in evaluation a
situation. An effective coach also draws on a wide variety
of coaching techniques to help a manager change problem behaviors.
Coaching must reflect the complexity and difficulty of genuine
efforts to change behavior.
Books on Facilitating the Work of Others
Bens, Ingrid 2000. Facilitating With Ease! A Step-By-Step Guidebook with Customizable
Worksheets on CD-ROM. Jossey-Bass Publishers (204 pages).
The Association of Quality &
"This easy-to-read, totally comprehensive resource covers the art
of facilitation from A to Z. Over 200 pages of background tools, tips,
techniques, strategies, surveys, checklists, sample designs, and much
more are included."
Bens, Ingrid 1999.
Facilitation at a Glance Pocket Guide. Participative Dynamics (174
The Association of Quality &
Participation says, "Don't go to a meeting without
this comprehensive guide in your pocket. All the tools, techniques and
checklists you need to help you run more effective meetings. Includes
tips on how to gain buy-in, make decisions and manage group process.
Also includes guidelines for using the 14 most practical facilitator
Greensboro, NC: Center
for Creative Leadership Press (<50 pages).
specific information about performance is key
to developing the people who
report to you. This guidebook
tells you how to give your
feedback so they can work more
effectively, develop new skills, and grow professionally.
Caproni, P. J.
2000. The Practical Coach: Management Skills for Everyday Life. Upper
Saddle River, NJ: Prentice
Hall (600 pages).
This up-to-date book encourages
managers to become critical thinkers in their everyday managerial
activities. The Practical Coach is written by a broader group of
researchers than most other skills books. Presents new work
environment issues, a relationship-centered rather than
individual-centered role, critical perspectives, and up-to-date
research and examples. Ideal for readers interested in skills
Downs, Alan (2002). Secrets of an Executive Coach: Proven Methods
for Helping Leaders Excel Under Pressure. New York: AMACOM (224
just faulty products and poor fiscal results that can throw an
executive into crisis. The more prevalent and pernicious problems are
personal in nature. A manipulative or hierarchical boss may be
suffering a crisis of confidence; a stressed-out or uninterested
colleague may struggle with a crisis of passion.
According to experienced psychologist and executive coach
Alan Downs, these often dormant interior conflicts flare up when the
crushing demands of the business world collide with the inner needs of
the individual. His new book offers a fresh, eye-opening perspective
on how to steer executives back to a successful career path.
Secrets of an Executive Coach uncovers six crises that cause people to fail. And unlike
the prevailing corporate model, which advocates suppressing crises,
Downs explains how to confront and resolve them using 11 essential
coaching techniques, including role playing, self-imitation, metaphor
map, and devil's advocate. These classic methods gain new relevance in
this breakthrough approach that puts crisis management at the heart of
Robert K., Frick (Editor), Don. M., & Spears (Editor), Larry C. 1996.
On Becoming a Servant Leader. San
Francisco: Jossey-Bass (394 pages).
into the personal writings of the grandfather of the modern
empowerment in business leadership.
In this collection of previously unpublished works, writer,
consultant, and lecturer Robert Greenleaf shares his personal and
professional philosophy, which postulates that true leaders are those
who lead by serving others.
Spanning a time frame of fifty years, these essays and lectures
touch on such key issues as power, ethics, management, organizations,
And they offer the reader a wealth of practical suggestions and
useful information garnered through the course of a remarkable career.
Robert K., Spears (Editor), Larry C., & Vaill, Peter B. 1998. The
Power of Servant Leadership : Essays. Berrett-Koehler Publisher
The Power of Servant-Leadership is
a collection of eight of Robert K. Greenleaf’s most compelling essays
on servant-leadership. He coined the term, servant-leadership, almost
thirty years ago. Servant-leadership emphasizes leadership that puts
serving others, including employees, customers and community, first.
These essays contain many of Greenleaf’s best insights into the nature
and practice of servant-leadership and show his continual refinement of
the servant-as-leader concept. In addition, several of the essays focus
on the related issues of spirit, commitment to vision, and wholeness.
Robert K.1983. Servant Leadership
: A Journey into the Nature of Legitimate Power and Greatness. New
York: Paulist Press, (338 pages).
When he retired
in 1964, Greenleaf was director of management research at AT & T,
where he spent most of his career working in organizational research
and development and in management education. He felt that the role of
the organizational leader was fulfilled by serving employees,
customers, and community. Similar ideas are popularly expressed today
by writers who continue to credit Greenleaf, such as Peter Block,
author of Stewardship (1993).
HD66. H372 2000
1999. Masterful Coaching Fieldbook: Grow
Your Business, Multiply Your Profits, Win The Talent War! San
Francisco: Jossey-Bass (347 pages).
This companion to the 1995 book Masterful
Coaching emphasizes application over theory. Three sections detail the
development of coaching mindset, a five-step coaching model, and a
series of interviews that explore the use of coaching in he achievement
of various objectives. Plenty of exercises and activities accent the
Hargrove, Robert 1995.
Coaching : Extraordinary Results by Impacting People and the Way They Think
and Work Together. Pfeiffer
& Co (320 pages).
Written as an interactive dialogue with the
reader, Masterful Coaching emphasizes core coaching skills--sponsoring,
counseling, acknowledging, teaching and confronting. Provides examples of
coaching for breakthrough results from leading companies.
Hunt, J., &
Weintraub, J. R.
(2002) Coaching Manager: Developing Top Talent in Business.
Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage Publications (280 pages).
The Coaching Manager: Developing Top Talent in Business
introduces an easy-to-implement developmental coaching model based on
the authors' extensive work with thousands of managers, executives,
and MBA students. The goal is for managers to help employees learn and
be more productive on a day-to-day basis. This model encourages
employees to take greater responsibility for their learning and
development while forging a helping relationship between manager and
employee. Such an approach to management will lighten the emphasis on
evaluation and create learning opportunities for all involved.
The book includes twenty real-world cases, self-assessment tools, and
action checklists to deepen skills and understanding. The Coaching
Manager will benefit managers, leaders, and entrepreneurs in business
and not-for-profit organizations; those in MBA programs; students in
leadership, organizational development, and human resource management;
as well as participants in executive training programs.
Justice, T., & Jamieson,
D. W. (1999) The Facilitator's Fieldbook: Step-by-Step Procedures,
Checklists and Guidelines, Samples and Templates. New York: AMACOM
scope, yet extremely practical and to the point, The Fieldbook is
perfect for both novice and experienced facilitators. Those new to the
art of facilitation will find clear guidance on basic how-to
information. More experienced facilitators will discover advanced
methods for use in more challenging facilitation situations and simple
models for facilitating both large and small groups.
Best of all, The Facilitator's Fieldbook contains a wealth of resources
such as checklists, samples, templates, guidelines, and step-by-step
procedures. It will enable you to perform all the skills of
facilitation, including: * establishing ground rules for groups *
planning meetings and agendas * building the group database *
brainstorming * decision making * conflict resolution, and more.
Greensboro, NC: Center
for Creative Leadership Press (<50 pages).
feedback experiences and career
transitions both involve acquiring new skills and honing current ones.
Critical to this is measuring
progress. This guidebook provides a proven technique on
to get and use the
feedback that will help. Tips on
to evaluate the feedback
and what to do if the decision is
made not to use
it are also provided.
Miller, C. (1996).
The Empowered Leader: 10 Keys to Servant Leadership. Nashville, TN:
Broadman & Holman Publishers (227 pages).
In The Empowered
Leader, Dr. Miller explores leadership as revealed in the life of King
David, the leader who often called himself the servant of God.
Ray, R. G. 1999. The Facilitative Leader: Behaviors That Enable
Success. Upper Saddle River, NJ: Prentice Hall (173 pages).
Providing future organizational leaders with the tools and know-how they'll need
to continually improve their skills and help other employees become more successful, this
proactive text gleans insight from the author's 25 years of experience as a production
worker, first line supervisor, plant and corporate trainer, and external consultant,
exploring the behaviors of the facilitative leader and linking them with the five
facilitative leader modes - enabler of change; respectful communicator; developer of
people and teams, master of problem-solving skills, and manager of conflict.
HD57.7. P475 1996
Peterson, David B., & Hicks, Mary Dee.
1996. Leader As Coach : Strategies for Coaching & Developing Others.
Personnel Decisions International.
Leader As Coach is the second in a series of books dealing with practical approaches to individual
and team development. Its five coaching strategies enable leaders to partner with others to
accelerate learning and development in a busy, demanding world.
Schwarz, R. 2002.
The Skilled Facilitator:
A Comprehensive Resource for Consultants, Facilitators, Managers,
Trainers, and Coaches (Rev. Ed.).
Jossey-Bass (432 pages).
When it was published
in 1994, Roger Schwarz's The Skilled Facilitator earned
widespread critical acclaim and became a landmark in the field. The
book is a classic work for consultants, facilitators, managers,
leaders, trainers, and coaches--anyone whose role is to guide groups
toward realizing their creative and problem-solving potential. This
thoroughly revised edition provides the essential materials for
facilitators and includes simple but effective ground rules for group
interaction. Filled with illustrative examples, the book contains
proven techniques for starting meetings on the right foot and ending
them positively and decisively. This important resource also offers
practical methods for handling emotions when they arise in a group and
offers a diagnostic approach for identifying and solving problems that
can undermine the group process.
Sharf, Richard S.
(2001). Applying Career Development Theory to Counseling (3rd
edition). Wadsworth Pub Co. (528 pages).
Richard Sharf goes beyond simply
presenting theory to show the reader how to apply the principles in a
counseling setting, making this book useful for both practicing
counselors and counselors-in-training. Sharf covers three major
theoretical areas (trait and type, life-span, and special-focus
theories) in Parts I-III, then discusses theoretical integration in
Part IV, with each theory providing a unique perspective on career
development. The book also offers numerous case examples, discusses
career testing from a practical and theoretical perspective, and
integrates labor-market information with career theory. In addition,
this book has been praised for having a clear writing style, useful
case examples, and material included throughout on diversity.
C. 1995. Reflections on Leadership : How Robert K. Greenleaf's
Theory of Servant-Leadership Influenced Today's Top Management Thinkers. John
Wiley & Sons (368 pages).
Robert K. Greenleaf's ideas are the
watershed for today's empowerment movement in business leadership, and his
thinking has inspired a cross section of America's foremost management
gurus. Offers a fresh look at Greenleaf's revolutionary concept of servant
leadership. Contains his most important essays as well as writings by his
prominent business and intellectual disciples including M. Scott Peck and
Thorne, Kaye (2001). Personal Coaching: Releasing
Potential at Work. Kogan Page Ltd. (192 pages).
coaching, where trainers work on a one-to-one basis with employees to
develop skills, is a growing trend in many organizations. Kaye Thorne
applies her accessible style and practical approach to the latest
training technique. Developed from skills used by trainers to train
senior managers and executives - where one-to-one coaching is often the
norm - the author shows how the same techniques can transform the
effectiveness of staff development at all levels. An ideal tool to
assist the current training trend for individual, tailored self
development, the correct use of personal coaching will help
organizations to achieve their developmental goals while helping staff
in the pursuit of personal development. Packed with practical advice,
case studies and providing a structured route to successful
implementation in organizations of all sizes, this book provides the
essential handbook for the training of the future.
Weaver, Richard G.
& Farrell, John D. 1999. Managers As Facilitators : A Practical Guide to Getting Work Done in
a Changing Workplace. Berrett-Koehler Publisher (260 pages).
The Association of Quality & Participation says,
"This practical guide presents a new, easy to-understand
model of facilitation. It provides practical guidance for managers
and leaders in this new role. It shows managers how to capitalize on
group dynamics, and build effective work processes. The book's final
chapter synthesizes all the material by presenting 'Quick Fixes to
common problems.' "
Works: How to Build and Deliver Your Message.
Greensboro, NC: Center for
Creative Leadership Press (<50 pages).
feedback to others about their
performance is a key developmental experience. But not all
feedback is effective in making
the best use of that experience.
This guidebook demonstrates the foundation for effective
feedback practice, walking the
reader through, step by step and in detail, the
feedback method used at CCL. For
anyone who wants to get better at giving
feedback to anyone, whether they be a peer, direct report, or
boss, this guidebook demonstrates how to create an effective message
with real impact.
Zeus, P., & Skiffington,
S. (2001). The Complete Guide to Coaching at Work. New York:
McGraw-Hill (184 pages).
Offers beginners an introduction to
coaching, with a step-by-step blueprint of successful coaching
methods, models and tools. Includes insights on how to permanently
enhance personal and organizational effectiveness, performance, and
growth in the workplace.
Zeus, P., & Skiffington,
S. (2002). The Coaching at Work Toolkit: A Complete Guide to
Techniques and Practices. New York: McGraw-Hill (336 pages).
In their first book, The Complete Guide
to Coaching at Work authors Zeus and Skiffington focused on
explaining the nature of coaching, the competencies for coaches and
business applications. Following on from the success of that book,
Coaching at Work Toolkit is a complementary handbook of tips to
use when employing the coaching model of learning and change. This
book is about processes and practices and details actual coaching
techniques that can be that can be applied to various coaching
interventions. It also examines the changing nature and evolution of
coaching, such as the increasing importance of specialization To date,
most available coaching books detail the standard practice of goal
setting and actioning and some coach interventions but they do not
offer too many actual techniques that facilitate the desired change.
These techniques are invaluable to coaches in both life skills and
business although the emphasis is on business coaching. Coaching at
Work Toolkit includes the most recent models and techniques from
psychology, facilitation and education that have been successfully
adapted to coaching. Techniques are outlined and discussed, and then
presented alongside case studies and exercises.
Which articles or books did you find helpful? Are there any additional articles, books, or
other resources you would recommend to others attempting to improve their ability at
facilitating the work of others?
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