C I T E S
Here you can find out how to cite, when to
cite, and what cites should look like.
If you are comfortable (which
means you can do it correctly) with a
citation and referencing
style, you do not have to read this.
IF YOU HAVE ANY QUESTIONS
ABOUT HOW TO CITE, THEY ARE MOST LIKELY
ANSWERED IN THIS
Definition: Cites, or citations, are the
parenthetical notations in your papers that allow readers to make
the connection between the information you have used (quoted or paraphrased) and its
original source. Cites connect the information in your paper to the
original source — or the 'reference' — which will be on the list including all
sources you have used.
Notations (Cites): The
'Cite' is part of the sentence so cites
belong inside whatever punctuation ends the sentence; cites are not,
however, part of the original source, so — if you are quoting —
end the quote, then place the cite, then end the sentence
(with a period or other punctuation). Also, because cites are part
of the sentence, they refer only to information that is in that
sentence (not to information in previous sentences) and only to
information that immediately precedes them in the sentence — so
place your cites directly after the information that came from
another source, which may not be at the end of your sentence.
What a Cite Contains: In sociology, cites include three pieces of information:
the author's last name (or names, if multiple authors)
the year the source
the page number(s) the information was
printed on in the source
In other styles it is often only two
pieces of information — the author's last name and the page number.
I will accept either but you must be consistent.
It is NEVER
appropriate to use the full name of the author(s) OR the title of
your source, article or book, in your text; the PURPOSE of cites is
to allow argument development uncluttered by constant use of
identifying information of sources.
Also, limit the use of author's names in your sentences; this
is your writing, and your argument -- don't detract from the import
of your claims by giving GREATER credence to your source than to
your own argument.
WHEN TO CITE: Any time
the information you are putting including in your writing is specific and
detailed and can be traced to a single or multiple sources, you need
to cite it. "Common knowledge" is only such if essentially everybody
knows it (in which case, why repeat it?).
Basically, any details or information that
specifies any of the who, what, where, or when described in 'On
Social Facts' -- or a 'why' for which one of your sources is
responsible, must be cited.
example, the claim that 'some people tip their hats when they greet
women' should be cited or rephrased; how many is 'some'? and how do
you know? are the questions that sociologists must answer when
making statements such as this. Social context of the
information is equally important so, where (the U.S.?, or on
New York city streets?), when (the 1800s?, or today?) must be
included. Supplying this level of detail also insures that you
are dealing with social facts.
Examples Of Cites:
If author's name is in your sentence, follow
it with year in parentheses and then the page number after the
Duncan (1959) . . . (p
If author's name is not in your sentence,
enclose the last name and year in parentheses with the page
(Gouldner 1963, p
Pagination follows year of publication after a
(Kuhn 1970, p. 71).
For institutional authorship, supply minimum
identification from the beginning of the complete citation
(U.S. Bureau of the
Census 1963, p. 117)
Separate a series of citations that refer to
the same information with semicolon
(Burgess 1968, p. 231;
Marwell et al. 1971, p. 105).
CITING MULTIPLE-AUTHORED SOURCES:
Accurate attribution of source material
(citing) means that all authors' names must be included in the cite;
for two authors, that means both
authors' last names must be included in every cite of their material
(in the order in which they were listed for the original source --
the order of their names in your reference). In cites of sources
with more than two authors, all authors'
last names must be listed in the first cite. The first author's last
name and then 'et al.' should be used in all subsequent cites.
Examples Of Cites:
ALWAYS give both last names for dual-authored sources
(Martin and Bailey 1988,
Give all last names on the first citation in
your writing for more than two authors; thereafter use "et al." after
the first author's last name to indicate 'and others' in the
(Carr, Smith, and Jones
1962, p 105). And later . . . (Carr et al. 1962, p 67).
RULES FOR CITATIONS
REGARDLESS OF THE STYLE YOU ARE USING
• all direct quotes must have
page numbers in the cite — (NO PAGE NUMBER = PLAGIARISM)
• all specific information
requires page numbers in the cite
• page numbers in cites are the
specific pages the information is found on, NOT THE
PAGE NUMBERS THE ARTICLE IS PRINTED ON
• cites refer only to the
sentence they are part of; all cites (with one exception noted
below) go before the period that closes
the sentence BUT AFTER QUOTATION MARKS THAT CLOSE
• in your paper, you may not
paraphrase material from a source, spread it over 2 or more
sentences (or an entire paragraph) and use only one cite. Each bit
of specific information deserves its own cite. Be careful about
• you may start a
sentence with a phrase like "According to . . ." using the authors'
names and then use a full cite at the end of a second sentence to
indicate that the information in both sentences came from that
• if you use quotation
marks that means you are directly quoting the material; in other
words you are copying it VERBATIM. Make sure you do; misspellings,
bad grammar, etc. inside quotes UNLESS IT IS IN THE ORIGINAL also
• By the same token, you
cannot take a quote (or a paraphrase, for that matter) out of
context. It is your responsibility to demonstrate that you
understand the author's words by using the quote or paraphrased
information in an appropriate context with additional explanation if
• LONG QUOTES For direct quotes that are longer than 4 lines of
text, take off the quotation marks, single space and double
indent (indent from both margins) the entire quote. THIS IS THE ONLY
TIME YOUR CITE WOULD BE AFTER THE PERIOD.
difference between sociology and MLA styles is that in sociology,
unless the author's name has been used in the sentence, every cite
must include the author's name; in MLA, you are allowed to use just
a page number after the first cite in a series of cites from the
THE EXCEPTION TO THE PAGE NUMBER IN EVERY CITE
RULE: The only time a cite in one of your papers would not include a
page number is if the entire source (the whole article, book, etc.)
supports the point you are making AND ONLY THAT POINT. It is
extremely unlikely that you would be making so general a claim so,
you should have page numbers in every cite.