R E F E R E N C E S
Here your can find out what references are, their relationship to your cites, and what they look like.

Definition: References are the complete bibliographic information about the sources you used and you are obligated to provide them in a format with information sufficient for a reader to locate your sources by going to a library.  While some online-sources are acceptable, providing only the url or web-address is insufficient.  You must demonstrate that you understand what your source is -- book, journal article, article in collection -- by using the appropriate format and correctly locating the identifying elements of your source in the reference.

It is equally vital that you demonstrate that you understand the significance of sources in the intellectual endeavor by providing both correct references for the source material you use and clear linkages between the reference for the source and your use of that source in your paper by citing appropriately -- this is done with authors' last names.

Connections between Cites and References:

  • Each cite corresponds to a specific reference; and this is done with the first piece of information in both cites and references -- the author(s)' last name(s).
  • No source appears on your reference list that is not actually cited in your paper.
  • No cite appears in your paper that does not have a corresponding reference.

Rules for References:

  • A reference list is ALWAYS in alphabetical order by the FIRST author's last name.
  • References must be sociological meaning you must be able to verify that the author is a sociologist or an expert in the appropriate field for designated courses.  See your course Paper Description for more information.
  • Anything that is separately authored qualifies as ONE source/reference, must be referenced as such, and qualifies as an article in a collection.
  • References include AT LEAST the following elements and may, depending upon the type of source, include other elements as well.
    These are:

  • Author’s (or Authors’) full name(s) (or last names and initials). If you have a multiple authored source   you cannot change the order of their names when you list them in a reference (or a cite). The primary author's last name determines the placement of that source in your reference list (even if it starts with a ‘Z’ and the second author’s last name starts with an ‘A’).
  • Year of publication for the book, the journal, or the collection.
  • Title of the source (book title for books {in italics], article title [in quotes] and journal name [in italics] for journal articles, article title and book title for articles in collections)
  • Publication information (publisher and city and state for books, journal name with with volume and issue for journals)
  • For any article, whether in a journal or a collection, first through last page number it is printed on; REFERENCES FOR BOOKS DO NOT INCLUDE PAGE NUMBERS.
  • Edition (for books)
  • For collections, editor’s names

Example references for course materials are listed in the appropriate sociological style below; the correct reference for your text is in your Syllabus.  Also, correct references for every required reading for your course are listed in your syllabus -- probably for the week/day that material is required.

Books:  Below are examples of correctly referenced books (Your textbooks are correctly referenced on your syllabi)

Ballantine, Jeanne H., and Keith A. Roberts. 2007.  Our Social World: Introduction to Sociology.  Pine Forge Press: Thousand Oaks, CA.

Barak, Gregg.  2003.  Violence and Nonviolence: Pathways to Understanding.  Sage Publications: Thousand Oaks, CA.

Barkan, Steven E., and Lynne L. Snowden.  2008.  Collective Violence. Second Edition. Sloan Publishing: Cornwall-on-Hudson, NY

Beneria, Lourdes.  2003.  Gender, Development, and Globalization: Economics as if All People Mattered.  Routledge, Taylor & Francis Group: New York, NY.

Gunewardena, Nandini, and Ann Kingsolver.  2007.  The Gender of Globalization: Women Navigating Cultural and Economic Marginalities.  School for Advanced Research Press: Santa Fe, NM.

Nagler, Michael N.  2004.  The Search for a Nonviolent Future.  Inner Ocean Publishing, Inc.: Maui, HI.


Articles in collections: Below is an example of a correctly referenced article from a collection [for more infomation, see the samples of Cover Pages and Table of Contents, from collections - at the bottom of this page]
(the order of the information in HARRIS below is:   author's name(s) • year of publication of the book, Exploring the Social • article title • page numbers the article is printed on • book/collection editors • book/collection title • edition • publisher • city/state it was published in.

Harris, Marvin 1995 [1974] “India’s Sacred Cow” pp 53-56 in John J. Macionis & Nijole V. Benokraitis’ Seeing Ourselves: Classic, Contemporary, and Cross-Cultural Readings in Sociology 3rd edition.  McGraw-Hill: Boston, MA.


Journal Articles: Below are examples of correctly referenced Journal articles [see samples of typical Journal pages, where you might find reference infomation - at the bottom of this page]

Brough, Holly B.  1991.  “A New Lay of the Land.”  World Watch.  4 (1): 12 – 19.

Hayden, Thomas.  2004.  “A Modern Life: After Decades of Discrimination, Poverty, and Despair, American Indians Can Finally look Toward a Better Future.”  U.S. News & World Report.  137 (11): 44-50.

Whitty, Julia.  2005.  “Accounting Coup.”  Mother Jones.  30 (5): 56-63, 86.

Wockner, Gary.  2005.  “Solar Power, Lakota Empowerment.”  World Watch: Working for a Sustainable Future.  18 (4): 12-17.


Samples of typical Cover Pages and Table of Contents, from COLLECTIONS


anderson example

macionis example
massey example

Samples of typical JOURNAL pages


contexts example
progressive example